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10 Alio AP, Mbah AK, Grunsten RA, Salihu HM. Teenage pregnancy and the influence of paternal involvement on fetal outcomes. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2011;24(6):404–409 3
11 Bianchi SM, Robinson JP, Milkie MA. Changing Rhythms of American Family Life. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation; 2007
12 Cabrera NJ, Tamis-LeMonda CS. Handbook of Father Involvement: Multidisciplinary Perspectives. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis; 2013
13 Lamb ME. The Role of the Father in Child Development. 5th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons; 2010 6
14 Yogman M, Garfield CF; Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health. Fathers’ roles in the care and development of their children: the role of pediatricians. Pediatrics. 2016;138(1):e20161128
15 Gambrel, L. E., & Piercy, F. P. (2015). Mindfulness‐based relationship education for couples expecting their first child—part 1: A randomized mixed‐methods program evaluation. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 41(1), 5–24.
16 NICHD Early Child Care Research Network, (2000). Factors associated with fathers’ caregiving activities and sensitivity with young children. Journal of Family Psychology, 14(2), 200–219. doi:10.1037/0893-3200.14.2.200
17 Lee J.Y., Knauer H.A., Lee S.J., et al. Father-Inclusive Perinatal Parent Education Programs: A Systematic Review. Pediatrics. 2018;142(1):e20180437
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20 Individual analyses for each outcome and corresponding studies can be found in Lee et al.’s (2018) literature review (Footnote 17)
21 Shapiro, A. F., Gottman, J. M., & Fink, B. C. (2019). Father’s Involvement When Bringing Baby Home: Efficacy Testing of a Couple-Focused Transition to Parenthood Intervention for Promoting Father Involvement. Psychological Reports, 003329411982943. doi:10.1177/0033294119829436
22 Barr, R., Morin, M., Brito, N., Richeda, B., Rodriguez, J., & Shauffer, C. (2014). Delivering services to incarcerated teen fathers: A pilot intervention to increase the quality of father–infant interactions during visitation. Psychological Services, 11(1), 10–21. doi:10.1037/a0034877
23 Diemer, G. A. (1997). Expectant fathers: Influence of perinatal education on stress, coping, and spousal relations. Research in Nursing & Health, 20(4), 281–293.doi:10.1002/(sici)1098-240x(199708)20:4<281::aid-nur2>;2-c
24 Gambrel LE, Piercy FP. Mindfulness- based relationship education for couples expecting their first child-part 2: phenomenological findings. J Marital Fam Ther. 2015;41(1):25–41
25 Cowan PA, Cowan CP, Pruett MK, Pruett K, Gillette P. Evaluating a couples group to enhance father involvement in low-income families using a benchmark comparison. Fam Relat. 2014;63(3):356–370